A video lecture I made on tariff analysis is available on
the Rapp page.

A bug corrected in hierarchical credibility computation of
the between-sectors variance component τ2.

"Credibility pseudo-estimators" is now on paper in
Scandinavian Actuarial Journal 2018:9.

Syntax colors in the Rappmenus / Mbasic editor can now be
freely chosen, including other background colors than white.

The Rappmenus / Mbasic editor now admits user defined
syntax coloring, determined by file extent.

I have been asked: Would Rapp be faster if made in C++?
The answer is No. It would be slower. A new entry at the
bottom of the Rapp page explains why.

The Rappmenus / Mbasic editor now admits the use of
F7 and F8 to scroll the screen up or down a page (one
more line than PageUp or PageDown), a halfpage or an
arbitrary number of lines. This adds another emulation
of the SPF editor. Look for the box labeled P/H.

The Rappmenus / Mbasic editor now has a Goto (line
number) box to navigate in the edited text.

Rappmenus / Utilities / Disk listing, with Find strings,
now admits searching whole words. I stated before that
the check box Renew? in Change all is deprecated
(i.e. it works but I advise against its use) due to the
checkbox R? in Disk listing. This was not exactly true,
since whole word search was not possible in Disk listing.
That has now been fixed.

To those who are interested in the C source code of Rapp:
All functions with xlm in their names have been replaced
by functions with xml in their names. These are more
structured, although still somewhat messy. They serve
the communication between Rapp and Excel.

Better colors in Rappmenus Excel output. Replace

Rappmenus / Utilities / Copy folders enhanced with a
new copying mode 8 that is not exactly necessary. Since
Rapp is my hobby, I have added it for fun. However, I
never add non-necessary functionality that would
jeopardize old well-functioning applications.

A bug corrected in Rappmenus / Utilities / Disk listing.

Rappmenus / Utilities has been amended again to cover
more of my needs as software developer.

New Proc Copyfo for copying folders and corresponding
option in Rappmenus / Utilities.

Rappmenus / Utilities / Disk listing enhanced.

A bug corrected in Rappmenus / Reserves.

Rappmenus / Utilities / Disk listing somewhat amended.

Rappmenus / Utilities / Change all and Disk listing should
now cover all date-time formats.

Rappmenus / Utilities / Change all and Disk listing have
been amended to cover more date-time formats beside
ISO. Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, UK and US English are
covered. I have not covered Korean, among others. If there
is a need, then tell me.

Rappmenus / Utilities / Disk listing and space computation
has been amended to a general purpose tool for searching
folders and files.

The infile boxes in Rappmenus / Reserves have been
moved to front from submenu Files and folders. Existing
parmfiles will place the infiles there. The triangle infiles
come first. Their priority is clearly stated.

In Proc Init the folder name tempmapp can now contain
blanks. This might be useful under some workplace rules
for allocations of computer disk.

Some malfunctions fixed in Utilities. Change all and
Disk space computation are now faster for some cases.

A new menu Utilities has been added to Rappmenus.

The guest book at the bottom of the Rapp page has been
removed due to a lack of interest.

Interest rates that fluctuate each month can now be used for
any period length. A bug due to the introduction of such
interest rates has been corrected.

Interest rates that fluctuate each month can now be used for
period-lengths month, tertial, quarter, half-year and year.
Initially only month was covered.

New Proc Diskcm for computing space on disk added to
Rapp.Exe. A somewhat extraneous functionality for Rapp,
but one I recently needed and took time to develop,
although you certainly can find such applications on
the internet.

Proc Chaall augmented with parameter Folders().

A bug preventing Include of a file after N first on a line in
a Rapp program has been fixed.

The menu "Text editor for, in particular, Mbasic and Rapp."
in Rappmenus has been simplified. Replace both Rapp.Exe
and Rappmenus.Exe.

Improved reading of complex numbers, arrays in Proc Mbasic.

Some bugs in the new functionality described below have been

Output from Rappmenus / Reserves has been simplified for
the case that only one of Incurred and Paid is used. That is, if
either choice Sim/Paid/Incurred at the left side of the menu
somewhat below the middle is set to I or P, or only one of the
Paid and Incurred infiles is given. Then it is easier to interpret
the created Excel file. Replace C:\Rapp\Rpp\TemplateR.Rpp
as well as the exe files.

Output from Rappmenus / Triangle based simple reserves has
been amended. Replace C:\Rapp\Rpp\TemplateS.Rpp as well
as the exe files.

I have simplified Rappmenus.Exe and Rapp.Exe. Replace both.
The new Rapp.Exe will not work with the old Rappmenus.Exe.
Old parmfiles with national characters , , , , , and
some more will need to be corrected in the menus and saved.
If the national characters are not part of variable names, only
texts in the output will be affected if you do not correct them.
Parmfiles are now more easily edited, if one wants to do that.

A bug affecting choice Recompute in Rappmenus / Reserves
has been corrected.

Sort of array in descending order introduced in Mbasic.

Interest rates that fluctuate each month can now be used for
discounting in Rappmenus / Reserves, instead of a fixed
interest rate.

My article "Credibility pseudo-estimators" is now online in
Scandinavian Actuarial Journal. A link is on cv.htm. 
It has been incorporated in the manual as Appendix 2 with the
name Cpse4manual.Pdf. Apart from the third appendix in the
article, the content is what has been published. 
One change in notation from Cps4manual.Pdf is that μk now
is the mean for Auxiliary n:o k, while before μj was the mean
for group j. The old μj is now μkj where kj is the Auxiliary
value for j.

The menu "Text editor for, in particular, Mbasic and Rapp."
in Rappmenus now has faster syntax coloring.

Rappmenus is now made with Visual Basic in Visual Studio 2017.
I cannot see a speed increase from the 2010 version.

New parameter Wholeword in Proc Chaall.

An editor for Mbasic and Rapp is now in Rappmenus.

Some restrictions for the use of the function sympostest() lifted.

Rapp now compiled with Microsoft Visual C++ 2017. I cannot
see an increase in speed of execution from the 2015 version,
but there might be other benefits.

Function sympostest() introduced in Proc Mbasic.

Proc Taran is now somewhat faster for a large number (greater
than about 1250) of free parameters, due to meticulous choice of
inversion algorithm depending on the size of the Fisher information

One more matrix inversion algorithm added in Proc Matrix and
Proc Mbasic - the Householder method, which might be useful
for some dense matrices.

Recently I waded out in too deep water for me by trying to
parallelize matrix multiplication. I just discovered that it
had unwanted consequences, so all forced parallelization is now
removed. If you downloaded the Rapp exes in September you
might have obtained unwanted results.

Proc Mbasic has now more printing options.

In Proc Mbasic a bug concerning output of arrays to print files
has been corrected.

Some complex operations made faster and/or more accurate after
implementation of "Numerical Recipes in C", 5.4. Complex
square root added.

In Proc Mbasic a bug, that disabled Redim and declarations with
variables as dimension limits for complex arrays, has been fixed.

Array and matrix operations in Proc Mbasic extended to complex
arrays. Only LU decomposition is presently implemented for
complex matrix inversion. The keyword complex is now required
for complex variables and arrays - eg "mouble A[4][4] complex"
is now not the same as "mouble A[4][4][2]". There were too many
ambiguities to admit the new functionality without the requirement.

Arithmetical operations for arrays beyond matrices introduced
in Proc Mbasic.

Some malfunctions (not exactly bugs) fixed in Proc Mbasic.

Some more bugs fixed in Proc Mbasic, concerning negations
of matrices and complex variables.

A bug fixed, which affected running Rapp with parameter CHA.
Type Rapp /? in the command prompt for parameters to Rapp.

Yet another bug fixed in Proc Mbasic, which made identifier
names with only one character sometimes invalid.

Proc Ddist has been much generalized to sums of independent
but not necessarily identically distributed random variables
with a discrete distribution. Multiprecision computation of
values and probabilities is also enabled.

I put the source code out in the open as a zip file and an
open letter on the maintenance of Rapp.

Proc Ddist has been somewhat generalized.

Proc Chaall now handles a practically unlimited number of
changes and text files with practically unlimited line length.

New Proc Ddist for the distribution of a sum of IID random
variables with a discrete distribution.

A bug fixed in Proc Mbasic / bindist() and bindistc().

Proc Calend, which has existed a few years, is now described
in the manual.

Appendix 2 in the manual is now named Cps4manual.Pdf.
An error in the expression for bias-corrected risk premium
on p. 24 now denoted (C5) has been corrected. The article
is reworked for more clarity and ease of understanding.

The cubic equation x3 + A x2 + B x + C = 0 can now be
solved with the function cube() in Proc Mbasic.

A bug fixed in Proc Mbasic / read statement when several
variables are read from the same input line.

A bug fixed in Proc Mbasic / sort statement. A mouble
array with both positive and negative elements was
incorrectly sorted before this correction.

Complex variables can now be treated in Proc Mbasic.
Please notify me if you find bugs.

A bug fixed in Proc Mbasic / gamdistinvc().

Some more variants of inverse functions added.

Inverses for the Γ- and χ2 distributions now in Proc Mbasic.

Inverses for the beta-, binomial and F-distributions available
in Proc Mbasic. The t inverse har now full mouble precision.

Proc Linreg has been augmented to give βj coefficients under
the assumption that α = 0.

A bug fixed in Reserves / Files and folders / Sort and complete
and in the template program TemplateR.rpp. Thanks to Rinjani!

In Proc Mbasic I have changed the order of the arguments
for fdist() and fdistc(). The t-distribution is now named
tdist() and its inverse tdistinv(). The inverse is now more
exact. New names for the β and binomial distributions.

The binomial and Poisson distribution functions added to
Proc Mbasic.

The χ2 and β distribution functions added to Proc Mbasic.

Modified Bessel functions Iv(x), Kv(x) added to Proc Mbasic.

More flexibility in Mbasic array handling.

A bug in Mbasic handling of conditions corrected. More
flexibility in conditional expressions.

The same Bessel functions now available in mouble with max
precision 306 decimal digits.

Bessel functions Jv(x) and Yv(x) now available in Proc Mbasic,
although at present only in double.

ψ(x) = Psi(x) = d log(Gamma(x))/dx = Gamma'(x)/Gamma(x)
now available in Proc Mbasic.

The Gamma distribution function now available in Proc Mbasic.

Slightly enhanced functionality in the print and read statements
of Proc Mbasic. More explanations of how the Gamma function
is computed.

Rapp32Vc2015.Exe replaces Rapp32Vc2013.Exe due to new
compiler and linker.

A bug in Gam() and Loggam() in Proc Mbasic corrected.
(Since the proc is so new, it is unlikely that all bugs have been
corrected by now. Any help to discover more bugs would be
very welcome.)

The Γ function is now available in mouble in Proc Mbasic,
however with maximal precision 306 decimal digits.

Another bug corrected in Proc Mbasic.

Bugs corrected in Reserves / RDC. Thanks to Rinjani Pebriawan!

Some improvements in Rappmenus / Reserves following
experiences by Rinjani Pebriawan at Universitas Gadjah Mada,
Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

Imperfections in Mbasic handling of conditions corrected.

Variants of Rapp.Exe for up to 9000 correct decimal digits
now available in Rapp All-In-One zip file

New Proc Mbasic. Look in the manual. Excerpts:
Mbasic is a mathematical language within the language Rapp.
M in Mbasic stands for Multiple precison, ie you choose the
number of correct decimal digits up to 306 for a data type
called mouble. The common double data type with an 8-byte
storage is also available. Also M stands for Matrix Basic,
since it has powerful matrix operations. You can largely use
the same syntax as in classical Basic (such as For / Next,
Gosub etc). Some C syntax is also employed.

New choice in Rappmenus /Reserves / Files and folders to let
Rapp make a line with Paydt = Reportdt for each claim if none
exists. The files will be sorted on ID also.

More explanations on grouping in quantile intervals in RDC,
in Appendix 6 of Rappmane.doc and the sheet Paid in Excel.

2015-09-12. Yet another bug in RDC, discovered while working
with Mujiati and Ari, has been corrected. Thanks to them again!
MSEP now yet somewhat smaller.

2015-09-08. After the invention of a superfast method of sorting,
the execution time for RDC mentioned below is reduced so that
it is now about 26 % longer than before with many quantiles.

A bug in the computation of quantiles, affecting Proc Percen
and the computation of reserves with the RDC method, has
been corrected. Thanks to Mujiati Dwi Kartikasari and Ari
Dwi Hartanto at Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta,
Indonesia, who discovered the bug! Execution time for RDC
is now somewhat longer by about 30 %, which is noticeable
in BICH. On the other hand, the more precise computation of
quantiles gives a smaller MSEP for RDC.

Still newer pseudo-estimators in credibility. See manual,
search 2015-07-27.

A bug corrected in credibility.

Somewhat new pseudo-estimators in credibility. The manual, its
Appendix 2 and the output from Rapp / Proc Taran are now
consistent with each other, I hope.

New parameters Leftfoot(), Rightfoot(), Lefthead(), Righthead()
for Procs Graf and Map. They display on all pages.

New parameter Landscape for Procs Graf and Map. Also as
checkboxes in the menus.

Parameter sort() in Proc Data now accepts /D for descending.

Yet another bug with parameter quick corrected. I hope I have
now corrected all bugs there, and most bugs elsewhere in Rapp.

Parameter quick or q to Procs Match and Sum is reinserted.
The bug mentioned below has been corrected.

Rapp /? on the command line now gives usages.

Some "features" (malfunctioning in extreme cases) have been
corrected in procs Map and Svg2co.

New submenu Svg2co in menu Maps.

The time measurement of procs is augmented so that both the
calendar time elapsed and consumed CPU are stated.

Rapp is now made with MSVC 2013. The name of the 32-bit Rapp
is changed from Rapp32Vc2010e.Exe to Rapp32Vc2013.Exe.

Info for those interested in the forthcoming Rapp Open Source
project:  I have tried the Intel C Compiler and its linker. They
did not give faster execution speed than Microsoft's compiler and
linker MSVC. Since all other compilers are said to be slower than
MSVC, this means that Rapp will continue to be made with MSVC.

TempMonthCl modified to delete only files older than 14 days.
This will eliminate the risk of collisions between two or more
Rapp programs run simultaneously, where one will create temp
files and another one will try to delete them before they have
been used.

Parameter TempMonthCl for monthly cleanup of tempmapp added
to Proc Init.

German language - at lan(d) in Proc Init - now also for BICH and
Reserves. Please notify me if you spot some error in my German.

Some improvement in the layout of the menus in Rappmenus.

From the experiences in the Tariff Analysis workshop November
2014 in Bandung and Yogyakarta, Indonesia:
Better documentation and elimination of the nuisance x as second
argument to Rapp in the Command Prompt. The x could be
eliminated through an environment variable i Br.Bat.

Parameter quick or q to Procs Match and Sum deleted. I discovered
it caused bugs for large files in memory.

More functionality in the menu Maps, with roads etc.

New Proc Ovelim for eliminating policy period overlaps.

New functionality for the procs Coofil and Svg2co that make
coordinate files for Proc Map.

Reserving manual Resvmane.doc has been updated.

A feature, concerning use of a Schnieper exposure file and premium
file for Benktander and Cape Cod at selection by segments, has been
augmented. Affects menus "BICH stochastic reserving", "Reserves"
and "Triangle based simple reserves".

A simple menu for reserves, using aggregated triangle data, is
now available.

Liu & Verrall (2009) prediction errors reinserted in procs Restri
and Bich. Aggregated triangle or list data can now be used in
menu Reserves. (Press button "Files and folders".) The BICH
prediction errors are the best if more than a few claims are
reported in the first development period, but I recognize that
BICH is not always possible.

Rapp.rar deleteted. Use rappexes.htm to download new exes.

A bug in the menus' graph-making corrected.

A menu Maps is now available in Rappmenus.Exe.

The Rapp package is now available in rar form on the AllInOne page.

Input from text files augmented so that all files, including such that
might have been transferred from Mac or Unix, are read corerctly.

New Proc Matrix for matrix determinant computation, inversion,
multiplication and transpose.

Non-pseudo tau-estimators in my credibility method. Search
2014-02-26 in Rappmane.doc.

An elaboration on BICH, motivated by a question at my lecture at
the Swedish Actuarial Association on 2013-10-22, is now available as
Booreserve.Pdf on the CV page cv.htm.

Some details in the computation of RDC/RBNS/GLM statreserves fixed.
Fetch Rpp\TemplateR.Rpp and the exes of Pgm\ again from one of the
zip files.

The reserve method RDC used in the procs Restri and Bich has been
augmented by grouping quantile indices so that each has at least
one finalized claim. Previously some open claims could receive
reserve 0.

More details now appear in the map made by Map-Sweden2.Rpp, using
more and augmented files in Mapdata. An addition to Proc Svg2co.

Some refinements to the creation and display of Pdf files.

Proc Map: Overlaying of areas and lines in strict order of appearance.

Proc Comerg: New parameter Bordersplit for splitting borders by which
areas share them. Proc Comerg thus both merges and splits geographical

Proc Map: Some new functionality, such as arbitrary rgb/hsb-colors
everywhere. Variable placement of symbol texts. The text is now
placed as closely to the symbol as is possible without obscuring it.

LW, LT and symbolheight in Proc Map can be given as real-world meters.

An error in Proc Map corrected. The parameters LW and LT are stated in
the manual as giving widths in millimeters on A4-paper, but gave in fact
smaller widths than that. C:\Rapp\Rpp\Map-Sweden.Rpp and some files
in C:\Rapp\Mapdata have now adjusted width parameters. Symbolheights
have also been adjusted to give the right heigths in millimeters.

External PostScript figures can now be used as logos and symbols.

Up to six pie charts on the same page in the procs Graf and Grafb.
Previously up to two.

New Proc Grafb. Arbitrary RGB-colors in pos[ ] and patterns
L1, L2, X2 in pie charts in Proc Graf.

Adapt.Exe could malfunction sometimes. Now fixed.

Some additions to and explanations of logo().

All-In-One package with all that is normally needed available.

New Proc Gpdml for ML-estimates in the Generalized Pareto distribution.

Swedish manual Rappman.doc and 2006 C 32-bit compiled program
discontinued. Use English manual Rappmane.doc. Use Rapp32Vc2010e.Exe
in a 32-bit environment.

A bug corrected in Proc Chaall. The proc is now language independent.

More functionality in Proc Chaall.

More development of my credibility method.

Somewhat different credibility analysis by my method. See Appendix 2.

Liu & Verrall (2009) prediction errors discontinued in Proc Bich.

Userfil() added to Rappmenus.

New parameter Colcomb() in Proc Excel.

User factors can replace GLM factors.

GLM smoothing of stat reserves in Reserves.

Informative menu coloring. Eg turquoise for parameters applicable only
to RDC.

More discounting parameters in Reserves.

New proc Xlmerg. Enhanced Excel output in Bich and Reserves.

New parameters for inflation adjustment and discounting added in Bich
and Reserves, with labels shown in red.

Zipped templates and testdata added to subpage Rapp exes.

Rappmenus / Data mangling: A bug corrected and more flexibility included.

All VB applications merged into Rappmenus.Exe.

A new VB application Datameny.Exe is now available.

Proc Durber pername now in the form YYYYMMDD also for 360-day periods
starting at YYYY0101.

A documentation on how to use Acrobat Distiller for making PDF-files
now included in the manuals.

Tariff analysis now included in Visual Basic applications.

The Resv*.Exe are not needed any longer. Download the right Rapp*.Exe,
Reservmeny.Exe, Reservbich.Exe and ParmVbTemplate.Txt in examples.txt

Reserve applications, including new menu for bootstrap stochastic
reserving, moved to subpage.

Reservmeny.Exe somewhat improved.

Bornhuetter-Ferguson, Benktander(-Hovinen) and Cape-Cod reserving
methods introduced in the procs Bich and Restri. Also available in

A new Windows menue reserve application is now avaliable as
Reservmeny.Exe. See Resvmane.doc.

Proc Bich now admits 11 user given percentiles which overtake
the sequence 0.5 1.0 5.0 10.0 25.0 50.0 75.0 90.0 95.0 99.0 99.5

The RDC algorithm in Proc Bich and Proc Restri is now more efficient and
admits a larger number of claim- and development periods without
intolerable delay. E.g. nine years and monthly periods up to and
including 2011 give 108 periods. For a case with about 100,000 consumer
insurance claims this takes 1 minute on a 400 EUR 64-bit machine from May
2011. The same business for 17 years in monthly periods up to and incl
2011, with about 186,000 claims, gives 204 periods. This takes 9 minutes.
The number of quantiles q0 was 500.

Appendix 6 in Rappmane.doc will appear in ASTIN Bulletin, thus giving
scientific legitimacy to Proc Bich and the reserving method RDC.

Application Resv now admits four arguments A1-A4.

SPF like comparison of text files in Proc Compar.

More and better XML-files in application Resv.

Proc Percen now much faster than before 2012-02-04.

Proc Bich new parameters graf-akt and graf-boo.

Proc Reschl new parameters Kilo, Mega, Blanksep.

Proc Bich new parameter Inx-method().

Proc Map new parameter Meterperunit().

Application Resv now admits Schnieper and RDC.

Proc Bich Schnieperexposure default changed.

Proc Bich now gives analytical prediction errors devised by Liu & Verrall
(2009) for the Schnieper (1991) method.

Proc Reschl, change of used triangle elements in GLM.

The method of
   "Separating true IBNR and IBNER claims"
by R. Schnieper, Astin Bulletin 1991, vol 21(1), p. 111-127, introduced
in the procs Bich and Restri.

New parameter Excelproepilog() in Proc Init to make Proc Excel hopefully
last longer.

Proc Excel augmented to make informative Excel spreadsheets, useful for
Excel calculus, from more text file reports produced by Rapp. Such as
Xutfil() from Proc Reschl and Utfil(), Uttri() from Proc Bich.

Proc Bich equipped with the new reserving method
    RDC = Reserve by Detailed Conditioning
See Appendix 6 in Rappmane.doc. Output from RDC calculus can be taken as
input to Proc Reschl and made into Excel spreadsheets and PDF graphs.